By Daniel M. Fleetwood
This e-book presents an in depth therapy of radiation results in digital units, together with results on the fabric, equipment, and circuit degrees. The emphasis is on brief results brought on by unmarried ionizing debris (single-event results and delicate blunders) and results produced through the cumulative strength deposited via the radiation (total ionizing dose effects). Bipolar (Si and SiGe), metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS), and compound semiconductor applied sciences are mentioned. as well as contemplating the categorical concerns linked to high-performance units and applied sciences, the booklet contains the history fabric precious for realizing radiation results at a extra common point.
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Additional resources for Radiation effects and soft errors in integrated circuits and electronic devices
Achieving the target voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) maximum frequency was strongly dependent on the type of transistor used and which node was enclosed. Figure 9 shows the circuit schematic for the VCO. The NMOS stacks of MN5MN7 and MN6-MN8 were initially realized using ringed-drain transistors for layout convenience (the drain was enclosed by the polysilicon, rather than the source). 4,13 Figure 10 shows simulation results for three different cases of VCO performance. The top trace shows the result when standard device models are used for the ringed-source (ringed-drain) transistors in the VCO.
Increased total dose in bipolar junction transistors results in increased noise and degraded P (or increased base current). As minority carrier devices, BJTs are also susceptible to displacement damage from proton or neutron irradiation. 25 urn SiGe BiCMOS process have demonstrated minimal performance degradation at proton fluences as high as 5 x 17 p/cm2. 01 rad(Si)/s or less. BiCMOS (or bipolar) processes should be carefully characterized for ELDRS effects to accurately predict the performance degradation of mixed-signal circuits in low dose rate environments.
In addition, there is currently no indication that analog and RF circuits will be able to take advantage of the same components and processes that digital circuits will eventually use. The need for high transconductance, low 1/f noise, and high output resistance already puts severe limits on the minimum gate lengths of MOS transistors used in analog circuits. Even today, an analog circuit with a few hundred components may require more chip area than a digital circuit with millions of transistors.