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By S. Inoué (auth.), Peter Török, Fu-Jen Kao (eds.)

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Wavelength dependence of the axial response maxima represented in physical (a) and optical (b) axial coordinates. 3). 78 optical units at all wavelengths and for all NAs. This region is also shown in the figure. The zero in the axial shift is arbitrarily set to correspond to λ = 546 nm for all the objectives tested. As could be expected these results show improvement in performance of apochromats over achromats. They also show that none of the tested objectives (and this includes many more not shown in Fig.

Microsc. – Oxford 201, 341 (2001) 30. S. Inou´e, M. A. Knudson: J. Microsc. – Oxford 201, 357 (2001) 20 S. Inou´e 31. S. Inou´e, M. Goda: Biol. Bull. 201, 231 (2001) 32. S. Inou´e, O. Shimomura, M. Goda, M. T. Tran: P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 4272 (2002) 33. K. : FASEB J. 1 Introduction Testing and characterization of high quality lenses have been perfected into fine art with the advent of lasers, phase-shifting interferometers, CCD cameras and computers. A bewildering array of techniques is described in Malacara’s classical reference book on the subject [1].

Fig. 12. 4 NA oil immersion lens with both nominal (outer ring) and effective working (inner ring) apertures indicated It is quite clear that competitive pressures push the lens designers towards the boundary (and sometimes beyond the boundary) of the technical possibilities of the day. 4 NA oil immersion lens when the Joneses next door were making one. 45 NA lenses. It is also true that a hefty premium is charged by the manufacturers for the last few tenths in the NA. It is quite possible that in many cases this is a very expensive empty aperture, which, although physically present, does not contribute to the resolving power of the lens.

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