By Laura Vivanco
The idea of the 3 estates made transparent differences among the features of the 2 estates which comprised the elite of medieval society: the oradores (ecclesiastics) and the defensores (warriors or nobility). that they had varied existence, garments and methods of considering existence. in regards to dying, the responses dictated via Christian theology conflicted with the calls for of the defensor ideology, in accordance with the defence of person honour, the pursuit of fama and the reveal of earthly energy. This publication charts the development of the death from their arrangements for dying, via their 'good' or 'bad' deaths, to their burials and otherworldly fates and in addition analyses the responses of the bereaved. by using pre-fifteenth-century texts it's attainable to illustrate that the clash among the orador and defensor ideologies didn't start within the 15th century, yet quite had a far older beginning, and it is recommended that the clash endured after 1500. Textual resources contain the Siete partidas, wills, chronicles, non secular works resembling the Arte de bien morir and literary works equivalent to C?rcel de Amor and Celestina.
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Additional info for Death in Fifteenth-Century Castile: Ideologies of the Elites (Monografías A)
8). In the tenth of Berceo’s Milagros de Nuestra Señora and in the account of a pope’s death in the early sixteenth century we find two examples of the procedures of the good death being followed correctly. In the miracle the previously avaricious Estevan dies in sin and is in great danger of having his soul dragged off to everlasting torment in Hell. Thanks to the intervention of the Virgin Mary and several saints he is returned to earth and given a second chance of dying well. This time he rights all the wrongs he has done in his life (an essential part of the making of a last will and testament, as we shall see), receives the last rites, and takes to his bed, praying right up to the last moment: Entregó ricamientre a los deseredados, a los qe tuerto tovo fízolos bien pagados, confessóse al preste de todos sos peccados, de quantos avié fechos e dichos e asmados.
This is in accordance with the evidence from Bury St Edmunds between 1439 and 1530, concerning which Robert Dinn concludes that ‘The death bed was probably [. . ] where wills were drawn up since the usually narrow gap between writing the will and probate suggests that wills were written close to death’ (1992: 154). Cantera Montenegro too finds that: la enfermedad, y por tanto la posibilidad o el temor a la muerte cercana, era la principal impulsora del redactor del testamento, pues de los 83 testamentos, 40 fueron redactados estando enfermo el testador; pero a ellos habría que añadir otros en que no se hace constar el estado de enfermedad aunque ésta debía de ser un hecho, pues por alguna otra fuente sabemos que poco después ha muerto.
En qualquier manera o por qualqujer causa que venga la muerte corporal, non debe aver enojo njn se deue turbar njn aver mjedo alguno, mas de grado, voluntariosamente e con todo el juyzio de la razón [. . ] rresçiba la muerte, e con mucha pasçiençia, conformando su voluntad de todo en todo con la voluntad de Dios. E así bien e seguramente podrá morir. (Arte ‘N’ 1990: 151) Unfortunately for the dying, this patience and endurance were not easily achieved. Although some died with relatively little physical pain, for others it was a slow and agonizing process, as in the case of Enrique IV: dióle un tan grand dolor de costado, y tan agudo que ningún reposo ni sosiego le dexaba tener; en tanto grado, que siempre le fue cresciendo, e nunca menguando, e duróle aquel dolor por espacio de diez horas.