By David H. Sachs (auth.), H. N. Eisen, R. A. Reisfeld (eds.)
Immunochemistry, lately rechristened molecular immunology, has been pre occupied all through its lengthy historical past with the constitution and serve as of antibodies and the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions. With the new X-ray diffrac of a number of crystallized immunoglobulin (Ig) fragments and a complete tion analyses Ig molecule, the three-d constitution of antibodies and their ligand combining websites has been discovered, marking the concluding levels of a section of immunological learn that may be traced again at the very least seventy five years. whilst chemically minded immunologists were relocating in new instructions. a considerable starting in a single path has been made with the purification of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for Ig chains. Hybridization of those RNAs (or their DNA copies made with the enzyme opposite transcriptase) to cellphone DNA is starting to supply convincing estimates of the variety of germ-line Ig genes. and a few hybridization experiences have already yielded suggestive facts for translocation of V and C genes from separate to contiguous positions in DNA remoted from cells at varied levels of differentiation. in addition, in vitro trans lation of Ig mRNAs has published a remarkably hydrophobic stretch of approximately 20 amino acids on the N-terminus of the nascent Ig chain. this additional piece is absent within the Ig extracted from or secreted through plasma cells, possibly since it is speedily cleaved from the "preimmunoglobulin" chain in the telephone, however the additional piece most likely performs a key function in directing the synthesis of prelg to the cell's secretory pathway.
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Mouse (H-21 Mon (HL-Al Rhesus (RhL-Al Dog (DL-Al B Guineo Pig (GPL-Al Figure 2. Genetic map of the major histocompatibility complex of various mammals. SD denotes the region coding for serologically detectable antigens (classical transplantation antigens). MLC denotes the region coding for antigens that evoke strong mixed leukocyte reactions. In some cases, immune response (I) genes appear to be coded in the MLC region. C' denotes the region coding for complement levels and/or components. For mouse, man, and guinea pig, the specific nomenclature of each region is given above the general designations.
Of course, it is possible that not all Ia antigens are equally immunogenic to different hosts. If differences in Ia antigens did exist among strains of the same B-2 haplotypes but no corresponding antibodies were present in the sera which we absorbed, this experiment would have failed to detect such differences. However, within these experimental limitations it would appear from these results that the susceptibility to polymorphism of the Ia antigens is at least no greater than that of the H-2K and H-2D region antigens.
2). All of these animals have two or more serologically detectable (SO) antigens which mediate the transplan- Transplantation Antigens 39 tation rejection process and are presumably analogous to the K and D antigens of the mouse. All have a genetic region which elicits a strong mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR), presumably analogous to that elicited by the I region of the H-2 complex. , 1973). , 1976). , 1976). A variety of diseases characterized by abnormal immune responses also appear to be associated with certain HL-A haplotypes (McDevitt and Bodmer, 1974, Moller, 1975).