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By F.R. Walther

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Sample text

However, by now probably even the most inveterate defender of a broad conception of "communication" will have some scruples about using this term, and such scruples certainly are not out of place.  Of course, one can define "communication" in such a way that it even comprises such cases. The question is whether it makes sense to do so, and whether the term "communication" does not lose its value when broadened to such an extent.  As always, however, going around a problem does not make it disappear.

However, by now probably even the most inveterate defender of a broad conception of "communication" will have some scruples about using this term, and such scruples certainly are not out of place.  Of course, one can define "communication" in such a way that it even comprises such cases. The question is whether it makes sense to do so, and whether the term "communication" does not lose its value when broadened to such an extent.  As always, however, going around a problem does not make it disappear.

Thus, in a sense, I try to please everybody when speaking of "signs, signals, or symbols," and I hope that most of my readers can accept this formulation without too great an inner resistance.  In short, the effect is not as sure and unavoidable as when I push him.  These advantages appear to be so important to social life that communication by signs and signals obviously has been invented in the behavioral repertories of many and very different animal species.  For the moment, we are concerned with the nature of signs, signals, or symbols, which is very difficult to describe adequately.

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