By Alfred Schutz (auth.), Arvid Brodersen (eds.)
Elsewhere 1 we have been eager about basic elements of the query how guy can understand his fellow-men. We analyzed man's subjective reviews of the opposite and located in them the foundation for his figuring out of the Other's subjective methods of awareness. The very assumption of the lifestyles of the opposite, notwithstanding, introduces the size of intersub jectivity. the area is skilled by means of the Self as being inhabited by way of different Selves, as being an international for others and of others. As we had celebration to show, intersubjective fact is on no account homogeneous. The social global during which guy unearths himself shows a fancy constitution; fellow-men seem to the Self less than assorted features, to which correspond varied cognitive kinds wherein the Self perceives and apprehends the Other's recommendations, reasons, and activities. within the current research will probably be our major job to explain the starting place of the differentiated buildings of social fact in addition to to bare the rules underlying its solidarity and coherence. It needs to be under pressure that cautious description of the approaches which allow one guy to appreciate another's innovations and activities is a prerequisite for the technique of the empirical social sciences. The query how a systematic interpretation of human motion is feasible should be resolved provided that an sufficient • From: De, sinnha/te A II/ball tler sowuen WeU, Vienna, 1932; 2d ed. 1960 (Sektion IV: Strukturanalyse der Sozialwelt, Soziale Umwelt, Mitwelt, Vorwelt, English variation by means of Professor Thomas Luckmann.
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Extra info for Collected Papers II: Studies in Social Theory
It is impossible to say at which precise moment the face-to-face situation ended and my partner became a mere contemporary of whom I have knowledge (he has, probably, arrived at home) but no direct experience. The gradations of directness can be also illustrated by the series ranging from a conversation face-to-face, to a conversation by phone, to an exchange of letters, to a message transmitted by a third party. Both examples show a progressive decrease in the wealth of symptoms by which I experience my partner and a progressive narrowing of the perspectives in which my partner appears to me.
By matching a given course of action with a given pattern of "because" and "in-order-to" motives, he will ascribe to the individual the motives which he, the observer, might have if only he were performing this action himself. , it may occur in the course of the Other's ongoing action, or it may take place in a retrospective interpretation of the observed event. Second, if the observer does not find some rule of thumb for the interpretation of the observed course of action in his own experience, he may yet find in his general stock of knowledge typifications of the observed individual from which he may derive a typification of the observed individual's typical motives.
The community of the world within reach of our experiences in the We-relation enables me to verify constantly the results of my interpretation of other men's experiences. The fellow-man face to face with me can be always interrogated. Hence I apprehend not only how he interprets his own experiences, that is, what meaning his experiences have for him. We may say that the realization of the correspondence and divergence of the meaning of our experiences originates in the We-relation. We already pointed out that my stock of knowledge, in so far as it refers to 32 PURE THEORY that particular fellow-man, and men in general, is constantly verified, corrected, and extended in the We-relation My own experiences, too, undergo a certain modification in the We-relation, and the same holds good for my partner.