By John McManners
This can be the 1st of 2 volumes in McManner's magesterial reconstruction of the advanced hierarchical international of the Gallican Church destroyed via the French Revolution. It describes the diocesan and parochial constitution of the Church, portraying the clergy and their way of life from the palaces of the aristocratic bishops to the humblest nunnery, and, in a mess of pics, examining their motivations and feel of vocation. In an in depth fresco he offers the faith of the folks, even if centering within the parish church or in confaternities, and the observances of people faith open air it.
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Extra resources for Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France: Volume 1: The Clerical Establishment and its Social Ramification (Oxford History of the Christian Church)
The Third Estate of the Estates General of 1614 had advanced the proposition: kings could not be deposed by the Church, and subjects could not be released from their oath of allegiance. 56 The Assemblies of Clergy in 1750 and 1756 renewed the formal statement that Christians are not entitled THE CORONATION 21 to revolt against duly constituted authority; this was said categorically, without reservations admitting the marginal possibility of tyrannicide which could be found in Aquinas and which for long had been included in Christian political theory.
Can only be regarded as a singular effect of the guidance of God, who holds in his hand the hearts of all men’. Another way a monarch may achieve power is by conquest in a just war, for all peoples, even pagans, accept God as ‘the sovereign arbiter of battles’. But there is a third way, superior to the others: ‘legitimate succession’, as in France. The caprice of peoples, cabals, and violence can vitiate an election, and a tyrant with an army of barbarians can win a war. God may not be actually operating in a particular election or on a particular battleﬁeld.
Any port will do if the storm is wild enough. The raw, utilitarian antithesis between anarchy and government which underlay the Christian doctrine of obedience was an argument THE CORONATION 19 of last resort, to be drawn on in desperate, revolutionary days. The divinity that hedged a king implied some sense of more direct divine election. This election was more often assumed than deﬁned. 52 Essentially, he appealed to the operation of the providential hand of God in history. A king may be elected; ‘this instinct by which a multitude of persons of different temperaments agree to choose a man to command them and by which they focus their choice on a single man .