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3 Evolution of altruism 27 Return to the tricky bits later, especially once you have a better understanding of 2ASexualselection 28 genetics and life cycles (Units 7,11 and 12). 5 Wheredo speciescome from .. 6 ... and why do species disappear? 7 A drivefor complexity? 8 The origin oflife Biology is an historical science. We are the way we are because our parents were like Summary/Exercisesl Further reading that too. Adult porcupines have baby porcupines, not toads, toadstools or cherry trees. Something is passed on from generation to generation.

Inputs from genetics, animal behaviour, ecology, molecular and cell biology in the 20th Century have built on, but not changed the basic ideas. The theory of evolution remains an essential part of our scientific framework for understanding theworld. Evolution: Inherited changes in . a population, accumulated over a number of generations. 1 Evldence for evolution There is a great deal of evidence that evolution has somehow taken place. There is no eafth. shattering proof. Rather, there are lots of lines of evidence which, when repeated in group after group of livlng things, form a body of evidence whlch is hard to interpret any other way.

Phylum Mollusca The molluscs are a large, diverse group. The body plan indudes a rather squat body with a more or less well-developed head, a shell of protein and calcium carbonate, a rough tongue-like radula used for scraping away food partides, and gills inside a cavity under the shell. In dass Gastropoda, the shell is in one piece, usually coiled. This dass indudes the limpets, winkles, snails and slugs (snails with reduced sheIls). Land snails hav~ an air-filled lung in the mantle cavity, instead of gills.

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