By Brayton Polka
<span><span><span>In </span><span style="font-style:italic;">Between Philosophy and faith Volumes I and II,</span><span> Brayton Polka examines Spinoza's 3 significant works--on faith, politics, and ethics--in order to teach that his proposal is instantly biblical and glossy. Polka argues that Spinoza is biblical purely insofar as he's understood to be one of many nice philosophers of modernity and that he's glossy merely whilst it really is understood that he's specific in making the translation of the Bible principal to philosophy and philosophy relevant to the translation of the Bible. This publication and its better half quantity are crucial interpreting for any pupil of Spinoza.</span></span></span>
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Extra info for Between Philosophy and Religion: Spinoza, the Bible, and Modernity, Volume 2: Politics and Ethics
His reversal of his opponents’ position is dramatic, although subtle and not easily discernible. According to his opponents, the affects are not natural; and human beings are not subject to the common empire of nature. ” The position of Spinoza, however, is precisely the opposite. He holds that vice is not natural and that, therefore, although human impotence and inconstancy are not to be attributed to the vice of human nature, they are to be attributed (he implies) to the common order of nature.
As always, the question is how to account for it—truthfully, lovingly, justly, freely. Spinoza’s opponents cannot account for error, for the final causes by which both God and human beings are determined are unknowable. Final causes are completely contradictory— being at once beyond (separate from) the nature of human affects and identical with (inseparable from) the nature of human affects. The fundamental basis of Spinoza’s critique of final causes is that human beings hypocritically take refuge in them as in the refuge of their ignorance of God.
20 I have already pointed out that, having initiated part I of the Ethics on God with the cause of itself as necessary existence and concluded part II on mind with the adequate knowledge of God on the part of all human beings, Spinoza now begins again, consistent with his critique of the ground of all prejudice in the appendix of part I. While human beings are born conscious of the appetite by which they seek their own advantage, they are, in the beginning, ignorant of the causes of their appetite.