By Clara B. Jones
A number of figures, illustrations, and tables; integration of recent literature and ideas into box of primatology; emphasis upon either behavioral and cognitive mechanisms.
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Additional resources for Behavioral Flexibility in Primates: Causes and Consequences (Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects)
34; Bergman and Siegal, 2003; Stearns, 2003) presents a preliminary schema of factors inﬂuencing the expression of behavioral ﬂexibility, including environmental parameters, individual parameters, and population parameters. , climate, population density) with the potential to favor or disfavor intraindividual behavioral variation. It is important to note that stochastic parameters may also create conditions of extreme environmental heterogeneity and that an individual’s tradeoff of beneﬁts to costs to ﬁtness will be a function of T (Roughgarden, 1979; Emlen, 1983).
Behavioral ﬂexibility). The parameters determining modal group size, thus, are ultimately expressed as adaptations of individuals to local environments (Wittenberger, 1980; Wilson, 1975; Dunbar, 1996). In the same local conditions, males and females may adopt different adaptive tactics and strategies due to the energetic and temporal constraints of anisogamy, differential investment in gametes between the sexes (Trivers, 1972). Anisogamy has consequences for group size since, all other things being equal, females are expected to adopt those behavioral programs conferring the greatest beneﬁts from the conversion of resources, especially food, into offspring, while the distribution of males is expected to map onto the dispersion of females or their resources in order to optimize fertilization success (Emlen and Oring, 1977; Bradbury and Vehrencamp, 1977; Wrangham, 1980; Wittenberger, 1980; Schoener, 1971; Nunn, 2003).
Chapters 5 and 6 of this book assess the extent to which these expected proﬁles may be a function of environmental heterogeneity and the degree to which environmental heterogeneity might favor behavioral ﬂexibility among individuals of each sex. , 2003). 1, p. 271) schema, for example, mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata, Fig. 27 years; Jones 1997b). If the selective agent, say, the periodicity of drought, were the selective agent for the genetic strategy of A. 27 years. , 2003) predictions of optimal genetic strategy in each of the four combinations of regimes (where the optimal life history strategy is a function of generation time relative to the scale of temporal and spatial environmental variation) suggests that mantled howler populations experience ﬁne-grained 13 14 CHAPTER 1 Fig.