Download Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure by Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy PDF

By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy

The risk and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unrivaled within the annals of event trip. Antarctica: Exploring the extraordinary surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, frequently within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. outstanding points of interest, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage in the course of the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from around the globe are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are special. a last part describes Antarctica at the present time, detailing the natural world and geology of a sector that's drawing increasingly more viewers who, just like the adventurers ahead of them, are eager about the isolation, attractiveness, and problem of the continent.

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Palmer sailed from Rugged Island on November 14, and by evening he sighted Deception Island. The next day Palmer entered a narrow passage later called Neptune’s Bellows and explored a large protected bay. ” Later that day, Palmer sailed from Deception Island southward in clear weather. Eight hours later Trinity Island, flanked by the precipitous mountains of the Antarctic Peninsula, was in full view. ” The channel Palmer found was later named Orleans Strait. Ice—and the absence of seals—dissuaded him from further exploration, and he headed north to search for a safe harbor for the American fleet.

Since ice blocked the way south, Cook turned northward with feelings of regret—but also relief. ” The Resolution swept across the Pacific, calling on Easter Island, the Marquesas, Tahiti, and New Caledonia before returning to New Zealand for a brief stay. Then on November 11, 1774, Cook sailed back across the Pacific and reached Tierra del Fuego. “I have now done with the Southern Pacific Ocean and flatter myself that no one will think that I have left it unexplored,” he wrote on December 17. On December 29 Cook steered for the eastern side of Tierra del Fuego, where “the Whales are blowing on every point of the Compass,” 24 ANTARCTICA wrote Clerke.

As another storm intensified, the Marigold floundered and sank in dense fog and high swells. Chaplain Fletcher, on watch duty, could do nothing but listen to the muted cries of the twenty-nine drowning men, muffled by the howling winds. ” With this discovery, Drake had unintentionally fulfilled his promise to explore the region south of Tierra del Fuego. The stormy waters would later be named in his honor: Drake’s Passage. Steering close to the western coast of South America, Drake looted settlements and Spanish galleons.

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