By Frank Schilder, Graham Katz (auth.), Frank Schilder, Graham Katz, James Pustejovsky (eds.)
The Dagstuhl Seminar 05151 “Annotating, Extracting and Reasoning approximately Time and occasions” came about April 10–15, 2005 on the foreign convention and learn heart (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany. through the seminar, 17 prime researchers from five di?erent international locations offered present study and mentioned open difficulties referring to annotation, temporal reasoning, and occasion identi?cation. The paintings provided at this seminar, including different earlier andongoingresearch,centersaroundanemergingde factostandardfortime and occasion annotation: TimeML. TimeML has lately been followed as a candidate for an ISO ordinary, and is presently being reviewed during this ability. on the seminar, the discussions focussed at the following 3 Time- similar matters: utilizing the TimeML language e?ectively for constant annotation, making a choice on how worthy such annotation is for additional processing,and describing modi?cations that are meant to be utilized to the normal for functions comparable to question-answering and knowledge retrieval. Discussions on the Dagstuhl Seminar resulted in new researchideas, and a range ofpublicationsandconferenceandworkshoppresentationsresulted.Thiscurrent choice of papers provides to the turning out to be physique of labor on TimeML. It focusses on vital sub-areas inside of TimeML study equivalent to temporal annotation and temporal reasoning and issues to destiny study instructions which are an important for additional progress.
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Extra resources for Annotating, Extracting and Reasoning about Time and Events: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, April 10-15, 2005. Revised Papers
These phrases were analyzed as to whether they appeared in initial or final position, and also whether their interpretation in context was p-definite or non-pdefinite. An example of such an adverbial is underlined in (9): 34 J. Hitzeman Table 5. 01 9. It was one of his daily tasks to fetch his water from a well a couple of fields off, and for this purpose, ever since he came to Raveloe, he had had a brown earthenware pot, which he held as his most precious utensil among the very few conveniences he had granted himself.
K. Ando Additionally, as the previous section shows, a diﬀerent degree of complexity is introduced by the size (and coverage) characteristics of timebank. g. tlinks over alinks and slinks), we still need to address the problem of insuﬃcient training data. Our position thus is that in addition to deploying sophisticated feature generators, we crucially need to leverage machine learning technology capable of exploiting unlabeled data. Our strategy for timeml analysis of text develops a hybrid approach utilising both ﬁnite-state (FS) grammars over linguistic annotations and machine learning (ML) techniques incorporating a novel learning strategy from large volumes of unlabeled data.
A second hypothesis was that more complex narratives would have significantly more initial-position temporal adverbials. The 40 J. Hitzeman data was also consistent with this hypothesis; Silas Marner, a novel with many flashback scenes, stood out as having more sentence-initial adverbials than the other texts. A finer-grained categorization of “narrative” is therefore needed, and such a categorization may prove useful in temporal analysis of discourse. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. : Reference to Kinds in English.