By David A. Scott, Jerry Podany, Brian B. Considine
The 16 essays during this quantity replicate quite a lot of examine pertaining to equipment for metals conservation, relatively in recognize to historical and old items. the range of concerns mentioned contains issues within the cleansing of historical bronze vessels the tactics interested by bronze casting, completing, patination, and corrosion reports of producing concepts of gold gadgets in historical African and medieval ecu metalworking thoughts of mercury gilding within the 18th century an research of patina within the category of bronze surfaces from land and lake environments an exam of bronze items from the Benin country, Nigeria the historical past of recovery of the Marcus Aurelius monument in Rome the corrosion of iron in structure and purposes of radiographic tomography to the examine of steel items.
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Extra resources for Ancient & Historic Metals Conservation and Scientific Research
The corrosion proceeds into the metal through the grains like a root. 7 Analysis showed the area represented in Figures 2a–d to be the same as that in Figure 1a. The results may be summarized as 37 SCHWEIZER TABLE 4. X-ray diffraction lines of corrosion products from bronzes from the site lake of Hauterive-Champréveyres, Switzerland, and of the minerals Sinnerite (Cu6 As4S9 ) and Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 ). 59 d(Å) Corrosion product from bronze needle (Lab MAH, Inv. 3389). 0128 <1 4 5 10b Ref. Makovisky and Skinner, Am.
10a, b). This copper sulfide must be the primary corrosion product and the objects must have been deposited soon after their use in an anaerobic, damp, and humus-rich soil. The chalcopyrite could not have been formed later 44 BRONZE OBJECTS FROM LAKE SITES FIGURE 8. Approximate posi- from basic copper carbonates or sulfates. The latter corrosion layers have a granular tion of some natural envi- microstructure, whereas the chalcopyrite layers are smooth and adhere closely to the ronments as characterized surface of the metal.
Alteration wash Water wash No. Tween-20 wash No. EDTA wash No. Rochelle wash tartrate wash Rm wash No. 5–4 3 31–5 4 42–15 2 — 9 118–23 4 with underlying gold 4 Nonuniform black with underlying gold 5 Gray with underlying gold 6 Whitish-gray with underlying gold 7 Powdery light green 8 — — — — — — — — — Thick layer of gypsum deposits 200–20 13 480–19 *The results of the areas where the highest conductivity values have been obtained, followed by the lowest values, are shown for each type of alteration and for each reagent, preceded by the total number of washings.