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By William N. Venables, David M. Smith

This guide offers an creation to "R", a software program package deal for statistical computing and photos. R is unfastened software program, disbursed lower than the GNU normal Public License. it may be used with GNU/Linux, Unix and Microsoft home windows.

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Although the details are complicated, model formulae in R will normally generate the models that an expert statistician would expect, provided that marginality is preserved. Fitting, for example, a model with an interaction but not the corresponding main effects will in general lead to surprising results, and is for experts only. frame ) For example > fm2 <- lm(y ~ x1 + x2, data = production) would fit a multiple regression model of y on x1 and x2 (with implicit intercept term). The important (but technically optional) parameter data = production specifies that any variables needed to construct the model should come first from the production data frame.

The names of components may be abbreviated down to the minimum number of letters needed to identify them uniquely. Thus Lst$coefficients may be minimally specified as Lst$coe and Lst$covariance as Lst$cov. The vector of names is in fact simply an attribute of the list like any other and may be handled as such. Other structures besides lists may, of course, similarly be given a names attribute also. 2 Constructing and modifying lists New lists may be formed from existing objects by the function list().

Because these functions are defined in an environment which contains total, they will have access to its value. The special assignment operator, <<-, is used to change the value associated with total. This operator looks back in enclosing environments for an environment that contains the symbol total and when it finds such an environment it replaces the value, in that environment, with the value of right hand side. If the global or top-level environment is reached without finding the symbol total then that variable is created and assigned to there.

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