By James Silverberg, J. Patrick Gray
This ebook explores the function of aggression in primate social structures and its implications for human habit.
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Extra resources for Aggression and Peacefulness in Humans and Other Primates
Data on the Arashiyama troop of Japanese macaques (with a daughter troop in Texas) started in 1954 (Koyama 1967, 1970; Fedigan et al. 1986). Long-term data permit analysis of intergenerational change and stability in dominance relationships. , troop demography, lineage ranking, kin support) that decide an animal's dominance history. Further, multigenerational data permit us to correlate changes in dominance relationships with changes in environmental resources. The baboon population of Amboseli declined from 1963 to 1979 and stabilized in 1983.
De Waal's discussion of aggressive socialization among rhesus macaques illustrates how pro-social aggression may function in dyadic interactions. Among rhesus, as among Japanese macaques (Kurland 1977), high levels of both affiliative and agonistic behavior characterize the relations between close kin. De Waal's results suggest that older relatives use mild violence to teach their younger relatives "rules of conduct," rules of behavior that must be learned if the younger animals are to mature socially.
We briefly examined this problem using Ross's methodology and conclude this section with our results. Using a holocultural sample, Whyte (1978) demonstrated that female status (prestige) is not a unified trait, but is best measured on several subscales that vary independently within societies. Ideally, we would have correlated Ross's scores on socialization practices and on level of violence with Whyte's scores on various scales of female prestige. Unfortunately, Ross scored the even numbered societies of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (Murdock and White 1969) while Whyte coded female prestige for the odd numbered societies.