Download Advanced Graphics with the Commodore 128 by M. M. Novak (auth.) PDF

By M. M. Novak (auth.)

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Extra resources for Advanced Graphics with the Commodore 128

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1115*X+15111,1111111-Y: NEXT A Parabola A set of points equidistant from a fixed point (focus) and a given line (directrix) forms a parabola. Such a curve may be expressed algebraically as Y•Y=2•P•X with P representing the distance between the focus and the directrix. 8 draws a parabola. 1115*X+15111,1111111-Y: NEXT Z Hyperbola A set of points whose difference of distances from two fixed points (foci) is constant forms a hyperbola. The equation describing a hyperbola is X * X/(P * P) - Y * Y/(Q * Q) = 1 Geometry in Two Dimensions 31 with parameters P and Q controlling the overall shape.

6. 7 24 Advanced Graphics with the Commodore 128 Vector expression ofa line We now proceed to derive the line equation using the vector concepts. Our task can be replaced by that of finding the position vector (starting point is at the origin) of a point on a line specified by two points A and B. The position vectors of points A and B are now denoted by r a and rb, respectively. Any point different from A and B, say, C has a corresponding position vector rc, as shown in Figure 2. 7. It is clear then that vectors rb - r a and r c - r a lie on the same line.

When the last parameter, rvs, is set to 1, the string is displayed in reverse video; setting it to 0 restores the display. Before going any further, write a short program to display a string on the screen. Can you display it vertically? 9 illustrates how to display strings in three directions. 9 100 REM TEXT ON GRAPHICS SCREEN 110 COLOR 1,8: GRAPHIC 1,1 120 T1S="HORIZONTAL LABEL" 130 CHAR 1,10,23,T1S 140 T2S="VERTICAL LABEL": LN=LEN(T2$) 150 FOR I=1 TO LN: CHAR 1,5,I+5,MIDS(T2S,I,1):NEXT 160 T3S="OBLIQUE LABEL": LN=LEN(T3$) 170 FOR I=1 TO LN: CHAR 1,I+8,21-I,MIDS(T3S,I,1): NEXT Displaying the 'horizontal label' is quite straightforward (lines 120-130).

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