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By H. D. Kumar, H. N. Singh (auth.)

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These jets agitate the culture suspension and keep it enriched with C02. At frequent intervals aliquots of culture suspension are pumped out and the algal cells harvested by centrifugation. The harvested cells are washed and dried in vacuum or extracted with methanol to remove the pigments. \ ground in a mill and stored in powdered form. On an average an annua} ECONOMIC IMPORTANCB 41 yield of nearly 13 metric tons per acre can be expected if the cultivation continues throughout the year. Cultivation, harvesting and drying are the three major processes for turning Chlorella into foodstuffs.

Species of Mastigocladus and Phormidium are impor- 52 A TEXTBOOK ON ALGAE tant members of the flora of hot water springs and can tolerate temperatures as high as 75°C. On the other hand, species of Phormidium are found in the frigid arctic lakes and certain others,collected from the Antarctic, have experimentally been shown to survive freezing. Tolerance to extremes of light intensity is i1Iustrated by species found in caves which are virtually dark, on bare rocks exposed to intense sunlight, or those growing in tropical deserts.

With the advent of unfavourable conditions the ordinary vegetative cells die whereas the akinetes successfully endure the harsh c1imate. When favourable conditions recommence during the next spring or rainy season. , Pithophora. Gloeotrichia and Cylindrospermum (Fig. 3-6 A). Akinete formation is widespread in the nitrogen-fixing blue-green alga, Aulosira /ertilissima. which occurs abundantly in tropical rice fields. Here, the vegetative filaments become transformed into chains of akinetes (spores) when the stagnant water in the fields begins to dry up, and it is in this sporulating condition that the alga tides over dry and hot periods.

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