By Alan Timberlake
This textbook describes and systematizes all features of the grammar of Russian--including styles of orthography, sounds, inflection, syntax, tense-aspect-mood, be aware order, and intonation. it really is in particular occupied with the which means of combos of phrases (constructions) and the middle notion is that of the predicate historical past (a checklist of the states of entities via time and throughout possibilities). utilizing predicate histories, the e-book provides an built-in account of the semantics of verbs, nouns, case, and point. it's going to entice scholars, students and language execs drawn to Russian.
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Additional info for A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars)
560 535 595 534 458 694 738 809 905 1297 402 493 518 510 347 1430 1319 1213 1066 1745 354 426 571 566 465 1985 1678 1219 1054 1334 338 437 482 451 323 1876 1847 1474 1418 1734 [ú] 10 ms. 30% 50% 70% −10 ms. 425 410 401 386 374 795 626 555 881 1164 435 437 433 446 490 854 856 914 1147 1730 360 346 383 386 392 2024 1696 1295 1100 1483 208 283 309 307 256 1871 1833 1662 1439 1789 10 ms. = measurement 10 ms. after beginning of vowel −10 ms. = measurement 10 ms. from end of vowel 30% (50%, 70%) = measurement at a point 30% (50%, 70%) of the duration of the vowel 31 32 A Reference Grammar of Russian example, [ó ú] as dark or gloomy vowels -- they have a low F2 -- and [† í] as bright or red or cheery vowels -- they have a high F2 .
26 The Library of Congress system and the British Standard have one prominent ambiguity: transliterated ≤ii≥ can represent either gen sg ≤bcnjhbb≥ ‘history’ or gen pl ≤bcnjhbq≥; ≤oi≥ can represent either ≤jb≥ or ≤jq≥. Computerized corpora develop strategies to avoid such ambiguities. The system of the Uppsala Corpus, for example, is representative of the new mode of unambiguous Romanization. The Uppsala Corpus uses digraphs with ≤h≥ for the unusual Cyrillic consonant letters -- for example, ≤;≥ becomes ≤zh≥; it uses ≤j≥ for ≤q≥ and as the operational graph in vowel letters -- for example, ≤z≥ becomes ≤ja≥.
C O N T E XT 2: C o VC ¸ : After a hard consonant, before a soft consonant, as in vƒnm ‘mother’ [ma5t⁄ ]˛ , [ƒ] begins with a similarly low F2 . In anticipation of the ﬁnal palatalized consonant, F2 is higher than with vƒn already at the midpoint (1490 Hz) and then rises sharply to a much higher value in the ﬁnal transition 4 Pictures from Kay’s Computerized Speech Laboratory; measurements prepared with Praat, the phonetics program developed by Paul Boersma. Polina Barskova was kind enough to serve as native speaker.