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By M.A. & Vergara, B.S. Arraudeau

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B. Intermediate type, Leaves have medium length and are semi-erect. C. Aus type. Leaves are long, narrow, and semi-erect. D. Modern type. Leaves are relatively short and erect. Leaves of the main stem • • • The coleoptile comes out of the seed first. It is followed by the primary leaf, then the secondary leaf with the first expanded leaf blade, then the other leaves. The last leaf is called the flag leaf. Most upland traditional rices have long, broad, and droopy leaves. 49 Leaf production • • • 50 Rice leaves on the main stem are produced one at a time.

The taller plants are weaker and will "lodge" or fall over if their panicles become heavy with grain. Plants produce food from light, water, and air. Less light means less food, which results in weak seedlings. Seedlings grow better when sunlight is bright. Low light intensity • Low light intensity results in 31 Available nutrients • • 32 Fertilizers supply nutrients (plant food) in addition to what is already available in the soil. Fertilizers are needed to produce high yields in areas with poor soil.

B. As the seedling gets older, it depends more on the environment for food. C. After producing 4 leaves at about 12 days old, the seedling grows from food taken through the roots and manufactured in the leaves. 27 Amount of rainfall • • • 28 Irregular rainfall means slow and uneven seedling growth. Severe drought will kill seedlings. Drought resistance during early growth, and good early vegetative vigor are important characters. Temperature • • High temperature dries the seedlings, resulting growth.

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